英语学习资料汇编

[给力词汇]初中版:2011年中考英语词汇-第三十一讲

来自:新东方在线 2011-09-07 16:43:00 | 阅读原文 分享到微博 | 写给作者 | 更多▼

1. jeans

n. (pl.) 牛仔裤

例句:He wears an oily old pair of jeans.

他穿着一条沾满油污的旧牛仔裤。

2. organize

例句:Sarah has been enlisted to organize the party.

萨拉已应邀组织这一聚会。

3. take away 拿走

例句:I want to take away the book which you showed me yesterday.

我想带走你昨天给我看的那本书。

4. clean-up n. 打扫,清除

例句:I'm going to have a good clean-up today.

v. 组织

1

今天我打算进行大扫除。

5. flower

例句:Bees gather nectar from flowers.

蜜蜂采集花蜜。

6. agent

例句:I made my assistant my agent while I was abroad.

我请我的助手在我出国期间做我的代理人。

7. around the world 在世界各地

例句:Television stations around the world are linked by satellite.

全世界的电视台通过卫星联系一起。

8. make a living 谋生

例句:He left his office job to try to make a living on the land.

他辞去了办公室的工作,改以务农为生。

n. 代理人;代理商 n. 花

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9. against

prep. 反对

例句:There are 26 votes for him and 8 against him.

有26票赞成他,8票反对他。

10. charity

例句:This charity aims to help people to help themselves.

这一慈善团体的宗旨是帮助人们实行自助.

11. chance

例句:It was the chance she had been waiting for.

这就是她一直等待的机会。

12. all the time 一直

例句:I've kept on thinking about that all the time.

我一直惦记着这件事。

13. injured

adj. 受伤的;受损害的 n. 机会;机遇 n. 慈善团体;慈善事业

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例句:Compensation of the injured workers has cost the company a lot.

公司花了一大笔钱赔偿受伤的工人。

14. sincerely

例句:I sincerely hope you'll come with us.

我真诚地希望你和我们一起去。

15. lawyer

例句:The lawyer explained the new law to us.

律师向我们解释了新法律。

[神马语法]初中版:100个句子轻松搞定初中英语语法-第31句

来自:新东方在线 2011-09-07 16:41:00 | 阅读原文 adv. 真诚地 n. 律师 分享到微博 | 写给作者 | 更多▼

32. Let’s practice! 我们来练习!

(1)practice用作名词:注析:[C]可数,[U]不可数。

1)实行,实施,实践[U]

e.g. I am afraid the idea would never work in practice.

4

恐怕这想法实际上行不通。

2) (反复的)练习,学习[C][U]

e.g. Learning a language needs a lot of practice.

学习语言需要勤练不辍。

(2)practice用作动词时,可以是不及物动词,其后没有宾语,也可以是及物动词,其后跟有v-ing形式作宾语。

[稀饭阅读]初中版:关于春天(Spring) 阅读原文

来自:新东方在线 2011-09-07 16:39:07 | 分享到微博 | 写给作者 | 更多▼

背景知识:

春天(Spring)

又称为春季,是一年中的第一个季节,北半球为公历3、4、5月。而南半球却是在十一月开始,如澳大利亚。春天气候温暖适中,中国内陆大部分地区少雨,万物生机萌发,气候多变,乍暖还寒。

立春是春季的开始。自秦代以来,我国就一直以立春作为春季的开始。立春是从天文上来划分的,而在自然界、在人们的心目中,春是温暖的,鸟语花香;春是生长的,耕耘播种。在气候学中,春季是指候(5天为一候)平均气温10℃至22℃的时段。时至立春,人们明 5

显地感觉到白昼长了,太阳暖了。气温、日照、降雨在这时常处于一年中的转折点,趋于上升或增多。小春作物长势加快,油菜抽苔和小麦拔节时耗水量增加,应该及时浇灌追肥,促进生长。农谚提醒人们“立春雨水到,早起晚睡觉”,大春备耕也开始了。虽然立了春,但是华南大部分地区仍是很冷“白雪却嫌春色晚,故穿庭树作飞花”的景象。这些气候特点,在安排农业生产时都是应该考虑到的。春的信息在哪里呢?那柳条上探出头来的芽苞,“嫩于金色软于丝”;那泥土中跃跃欲出的小草,等待“春风吹又生”;而为着夺取新丰收在田野中辛勤劳动的人们,正在用双手创造真正的春天。

拓展阅读:

In England, people often talk about the weather because they can

experience four seasons in one day. In the morning the weather is warm just like in spring. An hour later clouds come, and then it rains hard. In the afternoon, the sky will be clear, the sun will begin to shine, and it will be sunny at this time of the day.

In England, people can also have summer in winter, or have winter in summer. So in winter they can swim sometimes, and in summer sometimes they should take warm clothes.

When you go to England, you will see that some English people usually take an umbrella (伞) or a raincoat with them in the sunny morning, but you should not laugh at them. If you don't take an umbrella or a raincoat, you will regret (后悔) later in the day.

1. The best title (标题)for this passage is ________.

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A. Bad Seasons B. Summer or Winter

C. The Weather in England D. Strange English People

2. From the story we know that when _________come, there is a heavy rain.

A. sunshine and snow B. black clouds

C. summer and winter D. spring and autumn

3.

A. warm B. cool C. cold D. rainy

4. In the sunny morning, why do some English people usually take a raincoat or an umbrella with them?

5. Why do people in England often talk about the weather?

答案:

1. C

解析:通读全文可知本文讨论的是英国的天气,选C

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2. B

解析:乌云来是要下雨了,选B

3. A

解析:在冬天里过夏天当然是说有时天气很暖和,选A

4. Because it often rains in England.

解析:因为英国经常下雨

5. Because they may experience four seasons in one day.

解析:In England, people often talk about the weather because they can experience four seasons in one day.文首一句告诉我们答案。

[给力词汇]高中版:2011高考英语高频词汇精选-第29期

来自:新东方在线 2011-09-07 16:35:46 | 阅读原文 分享到微博 | 写给作者 | 更多▼

1、list

make a list (of… ) 造表,列……表

take … off the list从表上去掉…… n. 表;目录;名单 v.把……列成表;列举

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a price list 价目表

a reading list 阅读书目

a shopping list购物单

stand first on the list居首位,列前茅

list a fewer reasons列举几条理由

as listed above 如上所列

2、compete

compete in… 在某一方面竞争

compete for… 为……而竞争

compete with/against与……竞争

How many runners will be competing in the marathon? 有多少运动员参加马拉松赛跑?

The two teams compete for the championship. 那两队要争当冠军。

vi.比赛,竞赛

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He believed that nobody could compete with him. 他相信没有人能与他抗衡。

3、host

人,东道主

We all know that London will host the Olympic Games in 2012. 众所周知,伦敦将于2012年举办奥运会。

As Mr. Hill was away, Tom, the eldest son, acted as the host at the dinner party. 因希尔先生不在家,长子汤姆充当宴会的主人。

4、present adj.出席的,在场的;现在,目前的;在讨论中,在旁考虑的 n. vt. (作为主人)招待,接待,做……的主人(或东道主) n. 主现在,目前;礼物,赠品 vt.给;赠;交出;提出

Were you present at the ceremony? 举行典礼时你在场吗?

the present government现政府,本届政府

at the present time目前

in the present case在这件事中,照目前这个情况

the past,the present,the future过去,现在,未来

We don't need any more at present. 我们现在不需要更多的了。

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I'm buying it for a present, so please wrap it up nicely. 我买它作为礼物,所以请好好地包起来。

The mayor presented the prizes in person. 市长亲自颁奖。

The prize was presented to the winner. 优胜者获得奖品。

The report should have been presented much sooner. 这份报告老早就应该提出了。

She presented her views to the committee very clearly. 她非常清楚地向委员会陈述了自己的观点。

5、set

a set of 一组;一套

On the shelf there was a set of Lu Xun's works. 书架上有一套鲁迅的著作。

There is a set of rules you must follow if you' re going mountain-climbing. 如果你去爬山,你必须遵守一系列规定。

[伶牙俐齿]>>细数习语中的

来自:新东方在线 2011-09-07 16:20:34 | 分享到微博 | 写给作者 | 更多▼ 11

美国政府最近遭遇财政危机,苹果公司却富可敌国。俗话说

钱能使鬼推磨

1.top dollar

点拨:top意为

例:Other schools offered me top dollar to work for them. But I am happy here, and the students here are good. So I’ve decided to stay right here.别的学校给了我更优厚的待遇让我去为它们工作,但是我在这里很开心,这里的学生不错,因此我决定留在这里。

That's the best hotel in New York, but it’s top dollar.那是纽约最好的旅馆,但是住在那儿花销很大。

2.dollars to doughnuts

点拨:doughnut是“油炸的甜面包圈”,也称为“多福饼”。美国人喜欢就着咖啡吃doughnut当早餐。这个习惯用语起源于一百多年前。当时的dollar可比现在值钱多了,即使一美元也可以买好多东西,而当年的doughnut便宜极了,只要几美分一个。这样说来一dollar的价值相当于几百个doughnut,美元的优势当然不在话下,于是人们开始用dollars to doughnuts表示

12

例:I'll bet you, Alex, dollars to donuts that she’ll go home tomorrow.

Tomorrow is her mother’s birthday.阿历克斯,我敢跟你打赌她明天肯定会回家,明天是她妈妈的生日。

3.bet one's bottom dollar

点拨:bet one's bottom dollar最初是美国西部牛仔之间的常用语。bottom dollar指口袋底下剩下的最后一美元,bet one's bottom dollar原意为

例:Tom made the same mistake again. I bet my bottom dollar that he’ll blame somebody else for his own mistake.汤姆又犯了同样的错误。我敢打赌他肯定会把他的错误推给别人。

[链接]

也许有同学会觉得bet one's bottom dollar和dollars to doughnuts没有区别。这两个习惯用语的意思确实接近,但是有程度上的差别:dollars to doughnuts表示

4.the million dollar question

点拨:该习语直译为“一百万美元的问题”,其引申义为“难以回答的重要问题,关键问题”。我们不妨这样记这个习语:关乎一百万美元的问题就是关键问题。

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例:Someone asked the million dollar question, and he failed to answer.有人问了一个关键问题,他答不上来。

[给力词汇]初中版:2011年中考英语词汇-第三十三讲

来自:新东方在线 2011-09-09 14:43:12 | 阅读原文 分享到微博 | 写给作者 | 更多▼

1.run out of 用完;用尽

例句:We've run out of petrol.

我们的汽油用完了。

2.store

例句:He stored foods in his cupboard.

他把食品存放在碗橱里。

3.cake

例句:We soon dispatched the chocolate cake.

我们很快就分吃完了这个巧克力蛋糕。

4.particularly

adv. 特别;尤其;异乎寻常的 n. 蛋糕;糕,饼类食品 v. 储存

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例句:His behavior is not particularly adult.

他的举止行为还不太成熟。

5.collector

例句:My husband is a stamp collector.

我丈夫是个集邮者。

6. by the way 顺便;附带说说

例句:Love to Bob, by the way.

请顺便代向鲍勃问好。

7.common

例句:He's not an officer, but a common soldier.

他不是军官而是普通士兵。

8. extra

例句:Luggage in excess of 100 kg will be charged extra.

adj. 额外的 adj. 共同的;公共的 n. 收藏家

15

超过100公斤的行李要额外收费。

9.coin

例句:He put a coin into the insertion slot.

他往投币孔投入一枚硬币。

10.topic

例句:The topic centers on the crisis in these two countries.

话题以那两个国家的危机为中心。

11.been

例句:Our partnership dates back to (We have been partners since) 1960.

我们从1960年就合伙了。

12.be interested in 对……感兴趣

例句:It occurs to me that he might be interested in the problem we had discussed.

我想起来了,他也许对我们讨论过的那个问题感兴趣。 v. be的过去分词 n. 话题;主题 n. 钱币,硬币

16

13.writer

例句:Do you know who is the foremost writer in the English language?

你知道谁是最重要的英语作家吗?

14.capital

例句:Beijing is the capital of China.

北京是中国的首都。

15.European

例句:Germany is an European country.

德国是一个欧洲国家。

[神马语法]初中版:100个句子轻松搞定初中英语语法-第34句

来自:新东方在线 2011-09-09 14:42:14 | n. 作家,作者 n. 省会,首都 adj. 欧洲的;欧洲人的 分享到微博 | 写给作者 | 更多▼

34. Is it big or small? 它是大还是小呢?

连词or在初中英语中是个常用词,虽然它只有一个词性,但它却有不同的使用情况。现将主要用法分述如下:

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1)用在选择疑问句中连结被选择的对象,意为“或者,还是”。

e.g. Is he a doctor or a teacher?

他是医生还是教师?

(2)用于否定句中连结并列成分,表示“和,与”之意。

e.g. There isn’t any air or water on the moon.

月球上既没有空气也没有水。

(3)用于句型“祈使句+or+陈述句”中,表示在以祈使句为条件下的相反假设,

意为“否则,要不然”。

e.g. Work hard, or you will fall behind. 你要努力学习,否则会落后。

可以把这类句型中的祈使句换为一个条件句(注意改写时应去掉连词or)。

e.g. Hurry up, or you will be late for the meeting.

[稀饭阅读]初中版:交通(Transportation) 阅读原文

来自:新东方在线 2011-09-09 14:40:36 | 分享到微博 | 写给作者 | 更多▼ 18

背景知识:

交通(Transportation)

交通是运输和邮电的总称。运输是人和物借助交通工具的载运,产生有目的的空间位移,邮电则是邮政和电信的总称。

改革以来,我国的铁路、公路、水运和民航等运输方式均得到较快的发展,而且随着交通运输事业市场化程度的不断提高,各种运输方式之间的市场竞争也已全面展开。但是,由于多年来运输市场分属不同部门管理,缺乏统一的总体规划和政策指导,各种运输方式发展很不平衡:公路高速发展,近几年年投入2000多亿元,高速公路已达3万多公里,位居世界第二;铁路、水运相对发展缓慢,铁路客运量十多年来一直徘徊不前,运输份额持续下降,公路运输承担了大量的长距离大宗散货运输;衔接不同运输方式的综合运输枢纽建设严重滞后,铁路、公路和水运在同类客货源上盲目竞争的现象较为普遍。

拓展阅读:

We are well aware of the role of modern transportation in our lives. Not too long ago, people endured great hardship in order to make a long journey. Moving heavy goods from one town to another involved hard labor. Today, we enjoy the convenience(便捷) of various kinds of vehicles including ships, planes, trains, and automobiles, which allow us to go wherever we choose and make our workload much lighter.

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But modern transportation, along with convenience has brought some problems. With more drivers on the road, there has been an increase in traffic jams and accidents. The exhaust from automobiles has added to our air pollution, not to mention additional noise caused by trucks and cars on the road.

Like everything else, modern transportation has more than one face. Here in China, we look to our government experts to solve these problems. Scientists are working on developing modern fuel that produces less pollution. However, we can all help reduce air pollution from automobiles by only driving when it is necessary and using public transportation when available.

1. What is the best title (题目) of the passage?

A. Transportation B. Modern Transportation

C. Old Transportation D. Transportation in China

2. Modern transportation makes our life more ______.

A. convenient C. bad

B. fast D. hard

3. With more drivers on the road, there has been a(an) ______ in traffic jams and accidents.

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A. low B. stops C. decline (下降) D. increase

4. What are the problems with modern transportation?

5. What about modern transportation in China?

答案:

1.B

解析:通读全文可知本文讲交通,比较A,B,B更为贴近文意,选B

2.A

解析:But modern transportation, along with convenience has brought some problems.一句可知现代交通带给我们很多便利

3.D

解析:With more drivers on the road, there has been an increase in traffic jams and accidents.一句可知,选D

4. The problems include an increase in traffic jams and accidents, added air pollution and additional noise caused by trucks and cars on the road.

解析:With more drivers on the road, there has been an increase in traffic

jams and accidents. The exhaust from automobiles has added to our air pollution, not to mention additional noise caused by trucks and cars on the road.一句总结答案

5. Here in China, we look to our government experts to solve these problems.

解析:Here in China, we look to our government experts to solve these problems.原文

[给力词汇]高中版:2011高考英语高频词汇精选-第30期

来自:新东方在线 2011-09-09 14:39:11 | 阅读原文 分享到微博 | 写给作者 | 更多▼

1、record

v.记录,记载,录音 n.记录,唱片

This volume records the history of the city.这部书记录了该城市的历史。

The wireless program was recorded. 无线电广播是由录音制成的。

make a record录制唱片

set a record创记录

break a record 打破记录

keep a record保持记录

keep a record of 把……记录下来

2、determine

某事);使决定

The size of your feet determines the size of your shoes. 你脚的大小决定你鞋的大小。

Let’s determine a date for the class meeting. 咱们来定一下开班会的日期吧。

determine on/upon (doing) sth. =make up one’s mind to do sth.下决心

determine to do sth. 决心做

determine +从句 决心做

be determined to do sth. 决心做

He determined on going to collage.

= He was determined to go to college. 他决心上大学。

We determined on an early start. (determined to start early.) 我们决定早开始。

He firmly determined to learn Greek.他下决心读希腊文。 vt.&vi. 决定,确定;决定(某人的未来);下决心(做

Have you determined where you are going to spend your holidays?

= Have you determined where to spend your holidays? 你已决定将到何处度假吗?

determine sb. to do sth. 使某人决定/下决心做

What determined you to accept the offer? 什么原因使你接受此项提议?

The news determined him against further delay. 此消息使他决定不再拖延。

3、insist

insist on/upon sth. /doing sth. 坚决做,坚持做

insist on/upon one’ s doing坚持要某人做

He insisted on his correctness.他坚持自己是对的。

She insisted on/upon talking to the manager.她坚决要和经理谈谈。

I insist on your being there.我坚持要你在那里。

insist that 坚持,坚决主张

v. 坚持,强调

I insisted that he should come with us (insisted on his coming with us.) 我坚持要他与我们同去。

The lady insisted that she had done nothing wrong and that she should be treated properly.这位女士坚持说她没有做错事并认为应该得到恰当的待遇。

4、settle

停;支付, 结算

Their ancestry settled the land in 1856. 他们的祖辈1856年在这块土地上定居下来。

The city settled when the rebels left. 叛乱分子离开后, 这个城市平静下来了。

The music will settle my disordered brain. 音乐会使我纷乱的思绪得到安定。

The nurse settled her patient for the night. 那位护士使她的病人安静过夜。

She has decided how she should settle the matter. 她已做出决定如何来解决这件事。

And a word from him would settle everything. 只要他说一句话, 一切问题就解决了。

The account is not yet settled. 这笔账尚未付清。

vt.&vi. 安排;安放;安家,定居;(使)安定 vt. 解决;决定;调

We have to settle the gas bill. 我们得付煤气费。

5、locate

The general tried to locate the enemy's site. 那位将军想找出敌人营地的位置。

Early settlers located where there was water. 早期的移民安居在有水的地方。

He located himself behind the screen.他使自己居于幕后。

(一)基础讲解

比较特殊的倒装

1、在so…that和such…that的结构中,如果so、such引导的部分放在句首时,主句中的主语和谓语需要部分倒装。

So fast did he speak that we could hardly follow him .

So hard did they work that they finally won the fame.

Such great progress did he make that he was praised .

So frightened was she that she couldn’t say a word.

2、在if引导的虚拟条件句中,从句中如果有助动词had、情态动词should或系动词were(was),可省略if,把had,should或were(was)移到主语之前。

eg Were it to rain tomorrow, we would go out .

= If it were to rain tomorrow, we would not go out .

If I had attended the meeting, I would have been here.

= Had I attended the meeting, I would have been here.

Should it rain tomorrow, the sports meeting would be put off.

vt. 找出,指出(地点或位置) vt.&vi. (在…)设置, 坐落于

= If it should rain tomorrow, the sports meeting would be put off.

3、含有否定意义的副词never, not ,hardly ,little, seldom ,rarely, scarcely以及表示否定意义的介词短语at no time, under/in no circumstances, in no case, by no means, on no condition等置于句首时,引起所在句部分倒装,即把助动词或情态助动词置于句子主语前。

eg Not once have we been to China .=We have not been to China once.

我们一次也未到过中国。

By no means should you give up.

你决不应该放弃。

Never before have I seen such a moving film.=I have never seen such a moving film before.

我以前从未看过这么感人的电影。

(二)[基础过关]

1.We laugh at jokes,but seldom about how they work.

A.we think B.think we

C.we do think D.do we think

答案:D

解析: seldom为否定副词放句首,用部分倒装,故选D。句意为“我们因笑话而笑,但很少去思考笑话怎样让我们笑。”

2. Never before ____ in greater need of modern public transport than it is today.

A. has this city been B. this city has been

C. was this city D. this city was

答案:A

解析:表示否定含义的副词never 放句首用部分倒装。

(三)[能力提高]

1. The old couple have been married for 40 years and never once ________with each other.

A. they had quarrelled B. they have quarrelled

C. have they quarrelled D. had they quarreled

答案:C

解析:考部分主谓倒装。否定句(如该句中的never)在句首时,应用部分主谓倒装。这类副词有:never ,hardly ,seldom ,scarcely,little等。这句话的意思是:那对老夫妇结婚已经四十年了,连一次架也没吵过。

[给力词汇]初中版:2011年中考英语词汇-第三十四讲

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1.Russian

adj. 俄罗斯的,俄罗斯人的

例句:Information about Venus obtained by Russian probes has been published on some magazines.

许多杂志发表了由俄国航天探测器获得的有关金星的信息。

2.Australia

例句:The rabbit is a relatively recent introduction in Australia.

兔子在澳洲是较为近期引进的动物。

adj. 澳大利亚的;澳大利亚人的

3.Jewish

n. 犹太人的;犹太族的

例句:The Jewish nation is scattered around the world.

犹太民族散居于世界各地。

4.Jew

例句:He is a Jew.

他是犹太人。

5.more than 比……多

例句:She wishes to be treated as nothing more than a common girl.

她希望像普通的女孩子一样被对待。

6.thousand

例句:I received no less than ten thousand yen for my work.

我的工资多达一万日元。

7.emperor

n. 皇帝 n. 一千 n. 犹太人

例句:The emperor was actually a political eunuch.

那个皇帝实际上没有政治实权。

8.foreigner

例句:The foreigner came to China and attended the Fair.

外国朋友来华参加交易会。

9.quite

例句:I was quite pleased.

我挺高兴。

10.certain

例句:For certain reasons I will be unable to attend the meeting.

因为某种原因,我不能出席这次会议。

11.the Olympic Games 奥林匹克运动会

例句:The opening ceremony of the Olympic Games was grand.

n. 外国人 adv. 相当,十分 adj. 确实的;无疑的

奥运会的开幕式场面十分壮阔。

12.far away 在远处

例句:I live far away from my school.

我住的地方离学校很远。

13.miss

例句:I miss you very much.

我非常想念你。

14. Alison n. 艾利森

例句:Alison is learning to ride horse.

艾莉森在学骑马。

15.Celia n. 西莉亚

例句:Celia was gazing at him with her big round eyes.

西莉亚睁大圆圆的眼睛看着他。

[神马语法]初中版:100个句子轻松搞定初中英语语法-第35句 阅读原文 n. 思念

31

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35. Yes! It’s from my mother. 是!它是我妈妈买的。

(1)from其后可接副词或介词短语。

e.g. It’s a short distance from here. 从这儿去不远。

(2)从今天起多久以后 ,用“一段时间+from today ”。

e.g. Three weeks from today is a holiday. 从今天起放三周假。

I’ll come back a month from today. 我下个月的今天回来。

(3)关于 from…to…

1)用于时间、地点、变化、数目等。

e.g. I worked there from May to August.

我从5月至8月在那儿工作。

2)用于时间时,可用 from…till, until, through.

e.g. We work from Monday to (till, until, through) Friday.

32

我们从星期一工作到星期五。

但是若没有 from 则不能用 to.

e.g. I stayed there till (until, through, up to) September.

一直到九月我都住在那儿。

(4)用于下列习语 (注意:名词前不用冠词)。

from side to side 从一边到另一边,左右

from house to house 挨家挨户

from hand to hand 从一人之手到他人之手

from door to door 挨家挨户

[给力词汇]高中版:2011高考英语高频词汇精选-第31期

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1. quality

n.

[词 义] (人的)品质(可数);(物的)质量(不可数)(与quantity(数量)相对应);(人或物)特点,特性

33

[必记搭配] good quality 品德良好

human quality 人性

quality goods 精品

a man of quality 具有良好品质的人

[例] Quality is more important than quantity.

质量比数量更重要。

He has all the qualities of a successful businessman.

他具有一个成功商人所应具备的所有品质。

One quality of wood is that it can burn.

木材的特点之一就是会燃烧。

2. loyal

[词 义] 忠诚的,忠实的

[派 生 词] loyally adv. 忠实地,忠诚地 adj.

34

loyalty n. 忠实(不可数)

loyalist n. 忠实分子

[必记搭配] be loyal to 对…忠诚

[同/近义词] faithful, true

[例] He was utterly loyal to his wife.

他对他的妻子绝对忠实。

These people feel a lot of loyality to the company.

这些人都对公司忠心耿耿。

They didn’t loyally live up to the principles they professed.

他们未能忠实地履行他们所表明的原则。

3. fun

[词 义] 乐趣,兴致(不可数名词)

fun是不可数名词,其前不可用冠词修饰。 n.

35

[派 生 词] funny 滑稽的,荒谬的,逗人笑的

[例] We had great fun swimming in the lake.

我们在湖里游泳,玩得很开心。

What fun it is to play with my little dog.

逗我的小狗玩真是令人开心。

4. survive

[词 义] 经历...后依然活着; 幸免于; 经受得住

[派 生 词] survivor n. 存留下来的人或东西,生存者

survival n. 生存(不可数)

[例] Few survived after the flood.

洪水过后,生还者极少。

The man was very ill, but he survived.

这个人病得很厉害,可是他活下来了。 vi / vt 规则变化: -d; -d; 现在分词: surviving

36

He survived his wife for many years.

他比妻子多活好多年。

The house survived the storm.

经过暴风雨袭击, 这所房屋并未倒塌。

Crocodiles are survivals from the age of dinosaurs.

鳄鱼是从恐龙时代生存下来的物种。

His survival is still uncertain; he has been very badly hurt and may die.

他能否活下去还是一个未知数,他伤得太重,随时都有生命危险。

5. imagine

[词 义] 想象, 以为;假想

[派 生 词] imagination 想象力

imaginative 富于想象的;有想象力的

[必记搭配] imagine sth/doing sth./宾语从句 想象, 幻想/认为 规则变化: -d; -d; 现在分词: imagining

37

imagine sb.as 以为

[例] You can imagine the situation there.

你可以想象那里的情况。

I can’t imagine living in such a place.

我难以想像生活在这样一个地方。

I can't imagine what he looks like.

我想象不出他是什么长相。

Don't imagine yourself to be always correct.

不要以为自己总是对。

I imagine him as a big tall man.

我以为他是个高大的人。

He imagines that people don't believe him.

他总是认为人们不信任他。

38

[实战演练]

1.--- There is a story here in the paper about a 110-year-old man.

--- My goodness! I can’t imagine _________ that old.

A. to be B. to have been C. being D. having been

答案C。

解析:本题以为,不能想象自己变得那么老。imagine表“想象”之意时,其后应用doing,不可用to do形式作宾语

2.It’s difficult to imagine his ______ the decision without any consideration.

A. to accept B. accept C. accepting D. accepted

答案:C

解析:imagine表“想象”之意时,其后应用doing,不可用to do形式作宾语。

3.---Look! He’s running so fast!

---Hard to ______ his legs were once broken.

39

A. know B. imagine C. realize D. find

答案:B

解析:考查词义辨析。即:很难想象出他的腿曾经骨折过。

[神马语法]高中版:高考英语语法突破-构词法(1)

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(一)基础讲解

英语词的构成有一定的规律,这种规律称为构词法。掌握构词法对在文本中,理解、猜测新词、难词、怪词的词义有很大的帮助。在扩展词汇量的过程中,能起到“倍增器”的效果。常见的构词法有:转化法、合成法、派生法、截头法、去尾法、混成法等。在应用中,以前三种方法是用最广泛。

转化法

转化就是在词形不变的情况下,一个单词有一种词性转换为另一种词性。转换后的词义一般与原意有密切关系,但有时差异很大。对于双音节词转换后,读音也常常发变化。转化法一般有如下几种情况:

⑴动词转名词

Look v. 看 → n. 相貌

⑵名词转动词

40

Air n. 空气 → v. 通风

⑶形容词转动词

Empty a. 空的 → v. 倒空

⑷形容词转名词

Right a. 右边的 → n. 右侧

⑸形容词转副词

Long a.长的 → ad. 长地

合成法

合成法就是将两个或两个以上的词合成的一个新词。合成词各个成分之间有的要用连字符连接,有的直接连在一起。

⑴合成名词

Weekend(周末) software(软件)network(网络)

⑵合成形容词

Large-scale(大规模的) face-to-face(面对面的) sugar-free(无糖的)

41

⑶合成动词

Overthrow(推翻) heat-treat(热加工)undergo(经历)

派生法

派生法是在一个词根的前面或后面加上某个词缀来产生新词。加在前面的叫前缀,加在后面的词缀叫做后缀。

前缀多引起词义的变化而不改变词性。后缀对词性、词义都可能有影响。

例如: dis agree ment (不同意 n .)

前缀 词根 后缀

4、截短法(缩略法)

截短法,即将单词缩写,词义和词性保持不变,主要有截头、去尾、截头去尾等形式。

⑴截头

telephone→phone

aeroplane→plane

42

omnibus→bus

⑵去尾

mathematics→maths

co-operate→co-op

examination→exam

kilogram→kilo

laboratory→lab

taxicab→taxi

⑶截头去尾

influenza→flu

refrigerator→fridge

prescription→script

5、混合法(混成法)

43

混合法,即将两个词混合或各取一部分紧缩而成一个新词。后半部分表示主体;前半部分表示属性。

news broadcast→newscast新闻广播

television broadcast→telecast电视播送

smoke and fog→smog烟雾

helicopter airport→heliport直升飞机场

6、首尾字母缩略法

首尾字母缩略法,即用单词首尾字母组成一个新词。读音主要有两种形式,即各字母分别读音;作为一个单词读音。

very important person→VIP (读字母音)要人;大人物

television→TV (读字母音)电视

Testing of English as a Foreign Language→TOEFL托福

(二)[基础过关]

1. There were ________fish in the river in South America.

A. in danger B. danger

44

C. dangerous D. dangerless

答案:C

解析:空白为表语,需填如形容词,D项单词不存在,故选C

2. The letter “b” in the word “doubt” is________.

A. sound B. silent

C. silence D. sounded

答案:D

解析:空白为表语,需填入形容词。D与句意不符,故选C

3. The child looked at me________.

A. stranger B. strangely

C. strange D. strangeless

答案:B

解析:空白为状语,需填入副词。

45

4.The black people were against slavery and fought for their ________ bravely.

A. free B. freely

C. freedom D. frees

答案:B

解析:空白处为修饰Bravely的副词,故选B。

5. What you said sounded________ but in fact it was untrue.

A. reasonable B. reasonful

C. reasonless D. unreason

答案:A

解析:A项为有道理的,符合句意。

6. Stephenson became the ________ railway engineer in the world.

A. lead B. leader C. leading D. leadership

答案:C

46

解析:空白处为定语修饰railway engineer,需用形容词。故选C。

7.When the teacher praised him for working out the maths problem,Jack looked ________about at his classmates.

A. proud B. proudly C. pride D. pridely

答案:B

解析:-ly为副词结尾,D项不存在。

8.To everyone’s ________,the girl finished the job quite well.

A. satisfied B. satisfactory

C. satisfying D. satisfaction

答案:D

解析:空白在所有格后,应为名词,故选D。

9. No one should enter the spot without the________of the police.

A. permit B. permission

47

C. permitting D. permittence

答案:B

解析:B项为许可的名词形式,符合句意。

10. The necklace that she lost is very expensive. It’s of great ________.

A. valuable B. value

C. valueless D. unvaluable

答案:B

解析:of结构后需加名词。A、C、D均不为名词。选B。

(三)[能力提高]

1. We have to learn ________technology from other countries.

A. advance B. advancing

C. advantage D. advanced

答案:D

48

解析:空白处为定语,修饰technology,技术是被先进的,故用-ed,选D。

2. The children live in a village ________.They come here almost every day.

A. nearby B. near

C. nearly D. near by

答案:A

解析:空白为状语,C项词义是接近,而不是附近,故选A。

3.Mr Black is an ________in the army,not an ________in the government. You can not easily find him in his________.

A. official;officer;office

B. officer;office;official

C. official;official;official

D. officer;official;office

答案:B

解析:三个空白分别应填入军官、官员、办公室。故选B。

49

4.You’d better give up smoking if you want to keep ________.

A. health B. healthy

C. healthily D. healthier

答案:C

解析:空白处为表语,应填入形容词,又没有比较,故用原级,选C。

5.________ speaking,I didn’t do it on purpose.

A. Honestly B. Honest C. Honesty D. Dishonest

答案:A

解析:空白为状语,应填入副词,选A。

6. The ________ordered him to pay a 100 fine.

A. judger B. judgment

C. judge D. judgement

答案:C

50


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