Acdophilic body(嗜酸性小体):It is apoptosis of individual liver cells which become shrunken, pyknotic, and intensely eosinophilic.

Acute nephritic syndrome(急性肾炎综合征):it is a glomerular syndrome dominated by the acute onset of usually grossly visible hematuria, mild to moderate proteinuria.and hypertsion。

Ashoff body:Aschoff body is the hallmark of acute rheurnatic carditis, it contain a central focus of fibrinoid necrosis surrounded by a chronic mononuclear inflarnrnatory infiltrate and occasional large macrophages with vesicular nuclei and abundant basophilic cytopjlasm, called anitichkow cells

Atherosclerosis(动脉粥样硬化):Atherosclerosis is a slowly progressive disease of large to medium-sized muscular arteries and large elastic arteries, marked by elevated focal intimal fibrofatty plaques.

Ballooning change(气球样变):It is basic pathological change of viral hepatitis. Hepatocyte take on a swollen, edematous appearance.

Barrett esophagus(bar 食管):It is a complication of long-standing gastroesophageal reflux. It is defined as the replacement of squamous mucosa by metaplastic columnar epithelium containing goblet cells.

Bridging necrosis(桥连性坏死):The most severe form of liver necrosis. With more severe inflammatory, toxic injury, and necrosis of contiguous hepatocytes may span contiguous lobules in a portal-to-portal, portal-to-central, or central-to-central fashion. Bullous emphysema(大泡性肺气肿) :swhen the blebs or bullae is geater than 2 cm in diameter, sometimes forming cystiform structures.

Chronic atrophic gastritis(慢性萎缩性胃炎):Body and antrum are usually affected; Morphology: Glandular atrophy, Chronic inflammatory infiltration, and metaplasia in body region.

Chronic bronchitis(慢性支气管炎):The principal syndrome is persistent cough with sputum production for at least 3 months in at least 2 consecutive years. it is a kind of chronic nonspecific inflammation in large and medium size bronchi.

Cervical erosion(宫颈糜烂):Cervical squamous epithelial cell get some two types changes. One is the epithelial get necrosis with detachment; the other is the epithelial is replace by columnar epithelia.

Cervicalintraepithelial neoplasm (CIN): In the cervical epithelial, the normal epithelial cell were replaced by atypical cell without crossing the basement membrane. Choriocarcinoma(绒毛膜癌): Carcinoma nodules invaded myometrium with exiensive hemorrhage, necrosis. It has no chorionic villi, abnormal proliferation of trophoblast, and has no stroma blood vessel ,accompany with obvious hemorrhage

Chronic cor pulmonale(慢性肺心病):A condition of the right-side cardiac chambers caused by pulmonary hypertension resulting from pulmonary parenchymal or Pulmonary vascular disease. Its principal feature is enlargement of the right ventricle, with or without heart failure。

Chronic superficial gastritis(慢性浅表性胃炎):A common lesion of the stomach.The involvement of the antrum is the most common,so called gastritis antritis. It represent

an early stage of chronic atrophic gastritis.

Colloid goiter(胶质贮存期):The enlarged thyriod gland is translucent and brown due to the large amount of stored colloid;The cut surface of the thyroid is usually brown,somewhat glassy,and translucent.

Comedocarcinoma(粉刺癌):a kind of breast carcinoma, intraductal carcirioma in situ . It is characterized by high-grade malignent cells and central necrosis. In gross appearance, the cut surface shows distended ducts containing pasty necrotic clebris, resembling comedo .

Diffuse Toxic goier(Grave's disease):It is specific autoimmune disease.女多男少,with peak incidence in 30-40Y; caused by hyperthyroidism.The feature of hyperthyroidism:infiltrative ophthalmopathy, edematous dermopathy,finger-clubbing。 Early Carcinoma of the esophagus(早期食管癌) :Carcinoma is situ,gray-white, plaque-like thickenings or elevations of mucosa without LN metastases.

Early gastric carcinoma(早期胃癌): Local lesion is confined to the mucosa and submucosa. No matter whether lymph node metastases or not.

Early pulmonary carcinoma(早期肺癌):Intraluminal type:tumor locates in the lumen of bronchus, infiltration limits in bronchial wall. Infiltrative type: tumor infiltrates along the bronchial wall, no mass in the lumen. Peribronchial type: turnor penetrates the bronchial tissue, mass less than 2cm diameter.

Endemic goiter(地方性):Most often caused by dietary lack 碘, such conditions are paticularly common in mountainous areas 。

Fatty streak(脂纹):The lesions associated with ATH. Fatty streak are thin, flat, yellow streaks in the intima. Thye consisted of macrophages and SMCs, the cytoplasm of which has become distended with lipid (foam cells).

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis:it is characterized histologically by sclerosis of some glomeruli and involving only segments of each glomerulus. This histological picture is often associated with the nephritic syndrome.

Goodpasture's syndrome(急性增生性肾炎): anti-GBM antibodies cross-react with pulmonary alveolar basement membranes to produce the clinical pulmonary hemorrhages associated with renal failure. Linear deposits of IgG, C3.

Hypertension beart disease(高血压性心脏病):Hypertension heart disease means the heart is enlarged because Hypertension causes compensatory left ventricuiar hypertrophy as a result of the increased work imposed on the heart.

Hypertension(高血压病):Hypertension is a sustained rise of the systemic blood pressure above 140 mmHg systolic and /or above 90 mmHg diastolic.

霍奇金病:it is a disorder involving primarily lymphoid tissue无痛淋巴结增大,单个向周围扩散。

IgA Nephropathy (Berger's disease): IgA nephropathy is one of the most common causes of recurrent microscopic or gross hematuria and the most common glomerular disease worldwide. The pathogenic hallmark is the deposition of igA in the mesangium.

Infective endocarditis(感染性心内膜炎):it means that infection of the cardiac valves or mural surface of the endocardium, resulting in the formation of an adherent, bulky mass of thrombotic debris, and organisms, termed a vegetation. (acute and subacute forms).

Intestinal metaplasia(肠上皮化生):The glands cells of the stomach are replaced by typical intestinal goblet cells containing acidic glycoproteins。

Invasive lobular breast carcinoma:the mass is rubbery, poorly circumscribed, Under the microscopy, it show strands of infiltrating tumor cells invasive the stroma. Invasive mole(侵袭性葡萄胎):Hydropic villi invade myometrium, accompanied with hemorrhage and necrosis.

linitis plastic(皮革胃):When the gastric wall is extensively infitrated by malignancy. The stomach will become rigid and thickened.

Liver cirrhosis(肝硬化):It is an end stage of chronic liver disease which is defined by3characteristics:Bridging fibrous replacing multiple contiguous lobules;Parenchymal nodules; Disruption of the architecture of the entire liver. Lobar pneumonia(大叶性肺炎):It belongs to diffuse acute fibrinous inflammation, and the disease course including 4 stages, namely Congestion, Red hepatization, Gray hepatization, and Resolution.

Lobular pneumonia(小叶性肺炎):It belongs to acute purulent inflammation. It usually centered around the inflamed small bronchi and bronchioles, and presented as patchy, multifocal and bilateral distribution.

Malignant hypertension(恶性高血压):Malignant hypertension is characterized by papilledema, retinal hemorrhages and exudates, and blood perssures usually >230/130 mmHg.

Mallory body:Scattered hepatocytes accumulate a group of tangled cytokeratin intermediate filaments and other proteins, seen as eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions in degenerating hepatocytes.

massive hepatic Decrosis(大片肝坏死):The liver may shrink to 500 to 700g and change into a limp,red organ covered by a wrinkled, too-large capsule. On transection. necrotic areas have a muddy red, mushy appearance with blotchy bile staining.

Membranous nepbropathy(膜性肾病):it is a disorder that is usually associated With the nephritic syndrome and is characterize by the presence of subepithelial immunoglobulin-containing deposits along the GBM and diffuse thickening of the capillary wall.

Microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma in cervix:Carcinoma cell cross the basement membrane, microscopic invasion of stroma of less than 5mm in depth , diagnosed only by microscopy.

Minimal change disease: Primary epithelial cell injury and Disorder of T-cell function The most frequent cause of the nephrotic syndrornc in children

Myocardial infaction (MI)心肌梗死: MI is a discrete focus of ischemic necrosis in the heart. It involves principally the left ventricle, interventricular spetum and conducting systems

Nephrotic syndrome(肾病综合征);The nephrotic syndrome is characterized by heavy proteinuria, hypoalburninemia, severe edema, hyperlipidemia, and lipiduria

Nodular goiter(结节期):The thyroid gland is usually asymmetric with nodules varying considerably in size; It is characterized by considerable heterogeneity in structure; The cut surface shows degenerative features such as hemorrhages,calcifications.

fibrous scarring, or cystic degeneration.

Occult pulmonary carcinoma(隐性肺癌):Cancer cells are found in sputum,no clinical manifestation, X-ray examination negative。

Piecemeal necrosis(碎片状坏死):The lesion is often in hepatitis. Live cells at the intcrface between parenchyma and fibrous tissue are destroyed, together with lymphocytic or plasma cell infiltrate.

Pseudoaneurysm(假动脉瘤):it is a breach in the vascular wall leading an extravascular hematoma that freely communicates with the intravascular space, most commonly a post-myocardial infarction rupture that has boen contained by a pericardial adhesion or a leak at the junction of a vascular graft with a natural artery.

Pseudotubercle :After death of embryo in the acute egg nodule the egg granulomas can induce collagen formation accompanied by sporadic foreign body giant cell and filtration of lymph cells. The chronic egg nodule with centrally located ova is classic biharzial pseudotubercle, which is evident in biopsy specimens obtained 80 days after infection.

Pulmonary carnification(肺肉质变):It is organization of the lung, namely the fibrinous exudate becomes organized by granulation tissue.

Pulmonary emphysema(肺气肿):Defined morphologically as the abnormal enlargement of air spaces distal to the teminal bronchioles with destruction of their walls (bronchiolar supportive tissue).

Pyelonepbritis(肾盂肾炎): it is used when both the parcnchyma of the kidney and renal tubule are involved by interstitial, marked by interstitial purulent inflammation。 Pyloric gland metaplasia(腺上皮化生):The glands of the body are replaced by mucin-secreting cells like those of pyloric glands;

Reed-sternberg cell(R-S cell):it is essential neoplastic cell of all forms of HL,and its identification is essential for the histological diagnosis.(eosinophilic cell) Rheucnatism(风湿病):Rheurnatism is a multisystem inflamrnatory disease that follows an episode of group A streptococcal infection after an interal of a few weeks. Rheumatism may cause heart disease during its acute phase, called rheumatic fever. Silicosis(硅肺病):prolonged (5~10) years inhalation of silica particles produces a chronic, nodular, dense pulmonary fibrosis.

Sporadic goiter(散发性):女多男少, with peak incidence in puberty or young adult life,when there in an increased physiologic demand for thyroxine.

Teratomas(畸胎瘤):teratomas are tumors of germ cell origin that show differentiation toward somatic structure. they are composed of derivatives of 2or3primary germ layers. The filtering membrane of glomerular;it consists of the following structures: endothelial cells, GBM and visceral epithelial cells.

The hydatidiform mole(葡萄胎):It is a benign lesion of chorionic villi, it is characterized by swollen , edematous .chorionic villi accompanied by variable trophoblastic proliferation.

Wilms' tumor (Nephroblastoma): Wilns' tumor is a malignant mixed tumor of the kidney that is composed of mesenchymal and epithelial embryonal elements.


Tubercle(结核结节):it is the features of the pathological changes of tuberculosis,

which is showed typically by (l)Caseous necrosis;(2)Epitheliod cell;(3)Langhans' giant cells;(4)lymphocytes;(5)Fibrosis

Primary complex原发综合征:it is composed of a focal trberculosis lesion,inflammatory lyrnphatic vessels and the enlarged regional lymph nodes.

Typhoid node(伤寒小结):it is marked by the infiltration of tissues by typhoid cells,which in a characteristic large macrophages contain phagocytized erythrocytes,lymphocytes,bacteria and necrotic cellular debris.

Gumma(树胶样肿):Gumma is a localized destructive granuloma.lt is also called syphiloma.It may occur anywhere in the body with predilection for the skin,liver, bone,testis,subcutaneous tissue and oral cavity,Grossly,it produces a large mass that may be mistaken for a neoplasm.It is an area of rubbery coagulative necrosis,surrounded by epithelioid cells,lymphocytes,numerous plasma cells,and plump fibrosis.

Medullary swelling(髓样肿胀期):In the first week the lympoid tissue of the intestinal tract,Peyer`s patches of the ileum and lymph follicles in the cecum,are proliferation , and show as button-like protrusions. Typhoid granuloma can be seen obviously.

Pseudomembrane(假膜):it shows as gray-white, consisting of fibrin,necrotic tissue, neutrophil cells,red cells and bacilli. Hemorrhages can occur.

Cold abscess(冷脓肿):When the tuberculosis is invaded to the muscle, the liquefied caseous emerge as abscesses which lack heat and redness as acute purulent abscess. Neuronophagia(噬神经细胞现象):it is the phenomenon that the activated microglias or macrophages phagocytize dead neurons . Afterthat, there will be lots of small lipid droplet.

Satellitosis(卫星现象):In cinerea, If a neuron is surrounded by 5 or more than 5 oligodendrocytes, it is called satellitosis,

Cerebral abscess(脑脓肿):it is a regional purulent inflammation in the brain substance. The cavity contains thick pus formed from necrotic,liquefied brain tissue and large numbers of neutrophils and is surrounded by a fibrogliotic wall,

Amoeboma(阿米巴):Amoebomas aren’t found in patients suffering from chronic intestinal amebiasis. Although amebomas respond to proper chemotherapy but they are like carcinoma clinically, so they are hard to diagnosis.

Eosinophilic abscess(嗜酸性脓肿): SEA gives rise to a delayed hypersensitivity response and evokes minute abscesses, which facilitate their passage into the intestinal lumen . As eggs are deposited in the tissues, the antigenic substances secreted by the eggs invoke a host immune response that causes the formation of granulomas around the eggs trapped in the tissues. Cellular infiltrates include lymphocytes, eosinophils,macrophages , and fibroblasts.

Pipe stem cirrhosis(管道性肝硬化): Eggs deposited in the portal triads of the liver stimulate a granulomatous response, leading to continuous fibrosis of the periportal tissue. The white and hard fibrotic tissue is called***

Elephantiasis(象皮肿):Elephantiasis is a complication of chronic filariasis, in which nematode worms block the lymphatic vessels,usually in the legs or scrotum,causing extreme enlargement of the affected area See filariasis.


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