形容词与副词

第二章 形容词与副词

(Adjectives and Adverbs)

一)形容词与副词的定义

1. 形容词

形容词是修饰名词的词,说明人或事物的性质或特征。通常,可将形容词分成性质形容词和叙述形容词两类。

1) 直接说明事物的性质或特征的形容词是性质形容词, 它有级的变化,可以用程度副词修饰,在句中可作定语、表语或补语。

2) 叙述形容词只能做表语,所以又称表语形容词。这类形容词没有级的变化,也不可用程度副词修饰。大多数以a 开头的形容词都属于这一类。如:afraid, asleep, awake等。

3) 多个形容词作定语修饰同一个名词常用的顺序为:

限定词(these, those )+数量形容词(three )+描绘性形容词(beautiful )+大小、长短、高低等形体性形容词(large, long, high)+新旧(old )+颜色(red )+国籍(Chinese )+材料(wood )+用途(writing )+被修饰的名词(desk )

e.g. the first beautiful little white Chinese wood bridge “第一座美丽的中国小白木桥”

注:形容词作定语修饰名词时,通常要放在名词的前边。但是如果形容词修饰不定代词,则需要后置。如:nothing special。

2.副词

副词主要是用来修饰动词、形容词或另一个副词的词,通常作状语。副词的位置主要在:

36)在动词前;

37)在be 动词、情态动词或助动词后;

38)当句中有多个助动词时,副词一般放在第一个助动词后。

二)形容词与副词的比较级和最高级

1. 形容词与副词比较级和最高级的构成

1)绝大部分的单音节词和部分双音节词都是在原级后面加-er 或-est ,构成比较级和最高级。如:fast —faster —fastest ;strong —stronger —strongest ;early —earlier —earliest ;late —later —latest 。

2)以e 结尾的形容词或副词,直接加-r ,-st 构成比较级和最高级。如:nice —nicer —nicest ;close —closer —closest 。

3)辅音字母加y 结尾的形容词或副词,变y 为i ,再加—er ,est 构成比较级和最高级。如:happy —happier —happiest ;angry —angrier —angriest ;busy —busier —busiest ,funny —funnier —funniest 。

4)少数以-er (或-ure), -ow, -ble 结尾的双音节词,如clever —cleverer —cleverest, narrow —narrower — narrowest ,noble —nobler —noblest 。

5)重读闭音节后只有一个辅音字母的,双写该辅音字母,再加er ,est 构成比较级和最高级。如:hot —hotter —hottest ,sad —sadder —saddest 。

6)少数单音节词、部分双音节词、所有的多音节词、加-ly 构成的副词以及加-ed ,-ing ,-ful ,-ous 等构成的形容词,都直接加more 或most 构成比较级和最高级。如:fit ,fun ,real ,slowly ,pleased ,tired ,serious ,interesting ,difficult 等。

7)不规则变化,如:bad/badly/ill—worse —worst ;far —farther/further—farthest/furthest;old —older/elder—oldest/eldest。

2. 形容词与副词比较级和最高级的基本用法

1) 比较级

(1)Mary is happier than Jane. (形容词和系动词连用)

He lives more happily than I. (副词修饰行为动词)

(2)注意than 前后两项相比较的人或事物要一致。

The purpose of the research had a more important meaning for them than it did for us.

Sound travels faster through water than through air.

(3)比较级可用much, even, far,still, a little,a lot等词修饰,表示“… …得多”,“甚至… …”, “更… …”,“… …一些”等。

Japan is a little larger than Germany.

(4)隐含比较级

有些形容词在表示比较的时候,跟“to ”而不用“than ”

prior to 较早的、较重要的 superior to优越、高于 inferior to 下等的、次的 senior to 年长的、地位高的 junior to 年幼的、地位低的 preferable to更好的

The task is prior to all others.

In maths he felt superior to John.

He is two years senior to me.

Health without riches is preferable to riches without health.

2) 最高级

(1) 形容词的最高级形式:“定冠词+ 形容词最高级+名词+表示范围的短语或从句”(of all, of the three, in the

world, that has ever taken place)

(2) 副词的最高级前没有定冠词the 。

He runs fastest of the three.

(3) 当用介词短语表明形容词或副词最高级的比较范围,作介词宾语的名词或代词与句中的主语属同一类

人或物,并把主语包括在内时,用介词of ;如不属于同一类人或物,而只说明在某一时间、空间范围内的比较时,用介词“in ”。

He is the tallest of the four boys. he 与boys 同类。

He is the tallest in our class. he 与class 不同类。

(4) 可用原级、比较级、最高级三种形式来表示最高级的意思。

She is the best student in her class.

She is better than any other student in her class.

She is better than all the other students in her class.

She is better than any of the other students in her class.

She is better than anyone else in his class.

No other student in her class is better than she.

No other student in her class is as good as she.

三) 倍数的表达方法

用英语表达“A 是 B 的 N 倍长(宽,高,大,重等)”,“A 比 B 长(宽,高,大,重等)N 倍”或“A 的长度(宽度,高度,大小,重量等)是 B 的 N 倍”,可用下列几种句型。

1. 英语倍数表达方法一:

"A + be + 倍数 + as + 计量形容词原级 + as + B".

This tree is three times as tall as that one. 这棵树是那棵树的三倍高。

His father is twice as old as he. 他父亲的年纪有他两倍大。

2. 英语倍数表达法二

"A + be + 倍数 + 计量形容词比较级 + than + B "

The Yangtze River is almost twice longer than the Pearl River.

长江差不多比珠江长两倍。

The dictionary is exactly five times more expensive than that one.

这本字典比那本恰好贵5倍。

3. 英语倍数表达法三

"A + be + 倍数 + the + 计量名词 + of + B "

The newly broadened square is four times the size of the previous one.

新扩建的广场是未扩建时的四倍大。

4. 英文倍数的表达四

"The + 计量名词 + of + A + be + 倍数 + that + of + B "

The size of the newly broadened square is four times that of the previous one.

新扩建的广场为以前的四倍大。

5. 英语其他的倍数表达的方法五

I'm twice/ double his age. 我的年龄是他的两倍。

I've paid five times the usual price for the stamp.

我出了5倍于往常的价格买这枚邮票。

The average income of the staff has been increased by 50 percent compared with last year. 与去年相比,该单位职工的收入增加了50%.

The price of TVs is two fold (adj. 两部分的, 双重的) down over these years.

近几年来,电视机的价格下降了两倍。

Exercises

A. 单项填空

1) E-mailing is much____ than long-distance calling.

A. cheap B. cheaper C. cheapest D. the cheapest

2) This question is ____ more difficult than that one.

A. rather B. quite C. very D. a little

3) Yang won the women’s 500 meters in the sports meet. She did ____ of all.

A. good B. well C. better D. best

4) Among all of us he did the experiment ____.

A. more carefully B. most carefully C. the most carefully D. more careful

5) Would you please say it ____? I still can’t follow you.

A. loudly B. slowly C. more loudly D. more slowly

6) Mum, this T-shirt is much too small for me. Would you buy me a _____ one?

A. nice B. large C. nicer D. larger

7) Now China has joined the WTO. So I think English is ____ useful than before.

A. more B. most C. much D. many

8) I don’t think Unit 3 is more difficult. I think it’s ____.

A. more easily B. more easier C. much easily D. much easier

9) The young man drives _____ than he did three months ago.

A. much carefully B. much more careful C. much careful D. much more carefully

10) Mike is the oldest boy and is taller than ____ boys in the class.

A. the other B. any C. each D. all

11) His sister is ____ than he.

A. younger five years B. five years younger C. five year younger D. five younger years

12) The USA is one of ____ countries in the world.

A. rich B. richest C. more rich D. the richest

13) He thinks he is superior ___ his classmates because his father is an important person.

A. than B. to C. of D. with

14) We need ____ books than those you have bought us.

A. many many B. many more C. much more D. more many

15) The climate of Japan is milder than ____.

A. Canada B. in Canada C. that in Canada D. that of Canada

16) Professor White has written some short stories, but he is _____ known for his plays.

A. well B. better C. best D. more

17) China has a _____ population than _____ country.

A. larger; any B. large; other C. large; any other D. larger; any other

18) Can you believe that in _____ a rich country there should be _____ many poor people?

A. such; such B. such; so C. so; so D. so; such

19) The apples taste _____ and sell _____.

A. well; good B. well; well C. good; good D. good; well

20) John plays football _____, if not better than, David.

A. as well B. as well as C. so well D. so well as

21) It was raining heavily. Little Mary felt cold, so she stood _____ to her mother.

A. close B. more closely C. closely D. closedly

22) ----Why did you spend so much money on this book?

----Well, this book is ______ to the English beginners.

A. great help B. of very help C. a great help D. of helpful

23) Mary kept weighing herself to see how much ____ she was getting.

A. heavier B. heavy C. the heavier D. the heaviest

24) The water of the lake is so _____ that it looks like glass.

A. silent B. calm C. still D. quiet

25) ---Must I turn off the gas after cooking?

---Of course. You can never be ____ careful with that.

A. enough B. too C. so D. very

26) What a table! I’ve never seen such a thing before. It is _____ it is long.

A. half not as wide as B. wide not as half as C. not half as wide as D. as wide as not half

27) We ’ve just heard a warning on the radio that a hurricane is _____ to come this evening.

A. likely B. possible C. probable D. believable

28) Peter ’s jacket looked just the same as Jack’s, but it cost ____ his.

A. as much twice as B. twice as much as C. much as twice as D. as twice much as

29) The way to learn a foreign language is to practise _____ it as often as _____.

A. to speak; possible B. speaking; possibly C. spoken; possibly D. speaking; one can

30) Exercising is _____ as any to lose unwanted weight.

A. as a good way B. so good a way C. as good a way D. a better way

31) Every few ____ along the Great Wall, there are some watch towers.

A. hundreds metres B. hundreds of metres C. hundred meters D. hundred of metres

32) Johnson is a handsome young man. Last year he married _____ of Mr. Brown’s two daughters.

A. the young B. a younger C. the younger D. the youngest

33) The beauty of Hangzhou is _____ words can describe.

A. much than B. more than C. no more than D. not more than

34) The two scientists are believed _____ the fame honored by the government and the people.

A. to be worthy of B. of being worth C. of worth D. worth being

35) How much ______ she looked without her glasses!

A. well B. good C. best D. better

36) There are two buildings, _____ stands nearly a hundred feet high.

A. the larger B. the larger of them C. the larger one that D. the larger of which

37) I’m stuck on this problem; you may ask whoever knows _____ I .

A. better than B. less than C. as better as D. as well as

38) The report about the market sales should be sent to the manger on time and it shouldn’t be a minute ____.

A. late B. later C. latter D. latest

39) Mr. Smith had ______ the man’s accent.

A. many troubles to understand B. much difficulty in understanding

C. little difficulties to understand D. some troubles to understanding

40) Some people maintain that watching violence on TV is one of the major causes of ____ behavior and crime

in society.

A. childish B. artificial C. aggressive D. heroic

41) --I wonder ____ you’ll water this kind of flower.

--Every other day.

A. how often B. how long C. how soon D. how much

42) China has a much ____ population than ____.

A. larger, Russia B. more, Russia C. larger, that of Russia D. more, that of Russia

43) My uncle’s house in the downtown area is much smaller than ours, but it is twice ____ expensive.

A. as B. so C. too D. very

44) She looks like a teacher, but in fact she was ____ than a senior student.

A. not more B. no more C. not most D. no much

45) Miss May is an _____ teacher and she has been teaching for over 20 years.

A. experienced B. experiencing C. experiment D. experimental

46) Since Tom _____ downloaded a virus into his computer, he cannot open the file now.

A. readily B. horribly C. accidentally D. irregularly

47) John was dismissed last week because of his ____ attitude towards his job.

A. informal B. casual C. determined D. earnest

48) --Do you need any help, Lucy?

--Y es. The job is _____ I could do myself.

A. less than B. more than C. no more than D. not more than

49) Work gets done _____ when people do it together, and the rewards are higher too.

A. easily B. very easy C. more easily D. easier

50) He began to take political science _____ only when he left school. A. strictly B. truly C. carefully D. seriously

Answers : 1~5BDDBD 6~10DADDA 11~15BDBBD 16~20BDBDB 21~25ACADB 26~30CABDC 31~35CCBAD 36~40DAABC 41~45AAABA 46~50CBBCD

B. 改错题

A. B. C. D.

ambition.

A. B. C. D.

3) John’A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D.

Answers : 1)B are more likely; 2)C most poorly taught; 3)D Mike’s; 4)B inferior; 5)B the worse; 6)D that of any other country; 7) B the more去掉; 8)B larger

C. 填空题

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

6) Fruits are _____ (good) when they are fresh. This room is ______ (big) of the two. Today is our _____ (busy) day. This one is far ______ (good) than that one. The ______ (hard) you work, the _____ (much) you get. My new glasses cost me half _____ (much) yours.

Answers : best; the bigger; busiest; better; harder…more; as much as

温馨提示:

1. 比较级前的修饰语有much, far, even, still,a lot, a little, somewhat

2. 当形容词最高级用作表语而又非与他人他物比较时,不必用“the ”


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