初中英语时态一般现在时现在进行时一般过去时过去进行时

一般现在时

1. 一般现在时的基本用法:

1) 经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频率副词的时间状语连用。

时间状语: every morning(afternoon, Sunday), sometimes, on Sunday, often, usually等. 例如:I wake up at six O’clock every morning.

My friends often go to the park on Sundays.

2) 用于表示客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。

例如:The earth moves around the sun.

Tomorrow is Tuesday.

3) 用于格言或警句中。

例如:Where there is a will, there is a way.

4) 用于表示现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。

例如:I don't want so much.

She is a good girl and always help others.

My watch is very new。

2. 一般现在时的构成:

当主语是第一人称,第二人称或第三人称复数时,谓语动词要用动词原形。

当主语是第三人称单数时,谓语动词要用第三人称单数形式,即动词词尾要加s或 es. 例. We have four classes in the morning every day.

They work in a big office.

She likes singing very much.

附注:动词的第三人称单数变化形式分为规则变化和不规则变化两种形式。

1. 规则变化:

(1) 直接在动词词尾加-s.

ask---asks work---works get---gets stay---stays

(2) 以字母s, x, ch, sh或o结尾的动词,在词尾直接加-es.

fix---fixes do---does go---goes pass---passes

watch---watches wash____washes

(3)以“辅音字母加 “y”结尾的动词,要先变y为i再加-es.

try---tries study---studies cry---cries

2.不规则变化:

be---- is have----has

3. 一般现在时的句子转换:变否定句、一般疑问句

(1)一般疑问句:当句子中有be动词或情态动词时,则把be动词或情态动词提到主语的

前面变成疑问句;

否定句:在be动词或情态动词后面加not变成否定句.

例:She is a student. I can swim.

→ Is she a student? → Can you swim?

→ She is not a student. → I can not swim.

(2)一般疑问句:当句子中即没有be动词,也没有情态动词时,则在主语前加助动词do, does

变成问句;

否定句:在主语后谓语动词前加助动词don’t, doesn’t变成否定句,助动词后的谓语动

词要变成动词原形。

例:We get up at 7:00 every morning.

→ Do you get up at 7:00 every morning?

→ We don’t get up at 7:00 every morning.

She has a little brother.

→ Does she have a little brother?

→ She doesn’t have a little brother.

百看不如一练

一、写出下列动词的第三人称单数形式。

sit swim read make run

write type go watch clean

cry wash jump come study

二、用do、does填空

1、_____ you ride a bike after school? Yes, I ________.

2、______ your sister like football? No, she ______ not.

3、What_______ the students have? They have some pens.

4、How______ Linda go to school? She goes to school on foot.

5、He ______ not speak English. He speaks Chinese.

6、______ they watch TV on Sundays? Yes, they ______ .

7、 My father and mother ______ not read newspapers on Saturday.

三、改句子

1. Do you often play football after school? (肯定回答)

2. I have many books. (改为否定句)

3. Gao Shan’s sister likes playing table tennis (改为否定句)

4. She lives in a small town near New York. (改为一般疑问句)

5. I watch TV every day. (改为一般疑问句)

6. David has got a goal. (改为一般疑问句)

7. We have four lessons.(否定句)

8. Nancy doesn’t run fast (肯定句)

9. My dog runs fast.

否定句:

一般疑问句:

10. Mike has two letters for him.

一般疑问句:

否定句:

11. I usually play football on Friday afternoon.

否定句:

一般疑问句:

12. Su Yang usually washes some clothes on Saturday.

否定句:

一般疑问句:

13. Mingming usually waters the flowers every day

否定句:

般疑问句:

14. Tom does his homework at home.

否定句:

一般疑问句:

现在进行时

一、现在进行式的基本结构。

1) 第一人称:主语 + am + 现在分词 + ……

I am watching TV.

2) 第三人称单数:主语 + is + 现在分词 + ……

She is washing the dishes.

3) 第二人称及复数人称:主语 + are + 现在分词 + ……

They are playing games.

二、进行时的基本用法:

1) 表示现在( 指说话人说话时) 正在发生的事情。

We are waiting for you.

2) 习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行。

Mr. Green is writing another novel.

She is learning English under Mr. Smith.

3) 表示渐变的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go等。

The leaves are turning red.

It's getting warmer and warmer.

4) 与always, constantly, forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往

带有说话人的主观色彩。

You are always changing your mind.

三、现在进行时谓语动词的变化规则

1) 一般情况下,在动词后加ing构成. 如:

work_working sleep_sleeping

wait_waiting study_studying

2) 以不发音的e结尾的动词去掉e后再加ing. 如

take_taking move_ moving write_writing.

3) 以重读闭音节或r音节结尾且未尾只有一个辅音字母的动词,要双写未尾的辅音字母于加ing.如。

sit_sitting plan____planning swim_swimming.

4) 以字母ie结尾的动词,通常把ie改为y,再加ing.如。

die___dying Lie__lying

四、没有进行时态的动词

1) 表示感觉的感官动词没有进行时态。

see hear feel sound smell taste

2) 表示存在状态的动词没有进行时态

have(有) stay be own

3) 表示人物的心理活动,态度情感等的描述性动词没有进行时态

love like hate know think

4) 表示一次性动作的动词没有进行时态

decide give

百看不如一练

一 写出下列动词的现在分词

stand_________ sleep_________ jump_________ walk_________

clean_________ wash_________ do____________ go__________

listen_________ read_________ play __________sing__________

have_________ write_________ come_________ dance_________

skate_________ make________ ride__________

sit___________ run__________ swim_________

二 根据提示完成下列句子

1.The students_______ (正在上英语课)

2.Some girls________ (正在跳舞)

3.I____________ (正在骑自行车)

4.My mother__________( 正在做家务)

5.Helen___________ (会做模型飞机)

6.______you____ (正在看报纸吗)

7.______she_______(正在打扫图书馆吗)

8._______the boys________(正在打篮球吗)

三、用所给的动词的正确形式填空:

1.The boy __________________ ( draw)a picture now.

2. Listen! Some girls _______________ ( sing)in the classroom .

3. My mother _________________ ( cook )some nice food now.

4. What _____ you ______ ( do ) now?

5. Look! They _______________( have) an English lesson .

6.They ____________(not ,water) the flowers now.

7.Look! the girls ________________(dance )in the classroom .

8.What is our granddaughter doing? She ________(listen ) to music.

9. It’s 5 o’clock now. We _____________(have)supper now.

10.______Helen____________(wash )clothes? Yes ,she is .

四 句型转换:

1. They are doing housework .(分别改成一般疑问句和否定句)

2.The students are cleaning the classroom . ( 改一般疑问句并作肯定和否定回答)

3.I’m 对划线部分进行提问)

4.对划线部分进行提问)

一般过去时

一.概述

1.去某个时间里发生的动作或状态;过去习惯性、经常性的动作、行为;

2.时间状语:ago, yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week, last(year, night, month, 具体时间) just now, at the age of , one day, long ago, once upon a time(很久以前),

3.动词变化规则:

一般情况下,在动词原形后直接加ed。

如:wanted,played。

以不发音的字母e结尾的动词,直接加d。

如:hoped,lived。

重读闭音节单词需双写最后一个辅音字母,再加ed。

如:stopped, shipped。

以辅音字母+y结尾的动词变y为i,再加ed。

如:studied,worried。

有些动词不符合上面的规则,需要特殊记忆。

如:am(is)-was, are-were, go-went, eat-ate,

swim-swam, buy-bought, see-saw,

teach-taught, bring-brought, think-thought,

fall-fell, hurt-hurt, break-broke, win-won, lose-lost

二、一般过去时的基本用法

1. 带有确定的过去时间状语时,要用过去时,如:yesterday(昨天)、two days ago…(两天前…… )、last year…(去年…)、the other day(前几天)、once upon a time(很久以前)、 just now(刚才)、in the old days(过去的日子里)、before……(……前)、at+一个时间点

Eg. Did you have a party the other day?

Lei Feng was a good soldier in the old days.

2. 表示过去连续发生的动作时,要用过去时,这种情况下,往往没有表示过去的时间状语,而通过上下文来表示。

Eg.The boy opened his eyes for a moment,looked at the captain,and then died.

3. 表示过去一段时间内经常或反复的动作,常与always,never等连用。

Eg. Mrs. Peter always carried an umbrella.

(只是说明她过去的动作,不表明她现在是否常带着伞。)

比较:

Mrs. Peter always carries an umbrella.

(说明这是她的习惯,表明她现在仍然还习惯总带着一把伞)

Mrs. Peter is always carrying an umbrella.

彼得太太 总是带着一把伞。

(表示说话者对这一动作或行为厌烦)

4. 如果强调已经终止的习惯时要用 used to do(过去常常做,而现在不那样做了)

He used to drink.

(意味着他现在不喝酒了。喝酒这个动作终止了)

I used to take a walk in the morning.

(意味着现在不在早晨散步了)

比较:

I took a walk in the morning.

(只是说明过去这一动作)

5 有些句子,虽然没有表示过去确定时间的状语,但实际上是指过去发生的动作或存在的状态的话,也要用过去时,这一点,我们中国学生往往出错,要特别注意! I didn’t know you were in Paris. 我不知道你在巴黎。

(因为在说话时,我已经知道你在巴黎了。这句话指的是说话之前,所以只能用过去时表示。实际上,这句话暗指:But now I know you are here.)

I thought you were ill.

(这句话应是在说话之前,我以为你病了。但是现在我知道你没病)

辨别正误

Li Ming studied English this morning.把此句变为一般疑问句

1.Did Li Ming studied English this morning?

动词应该用________

2. Does Li Ming Study English this morning?

时态应该用________

3.Was Li Ming studied English this morning

应该用_______而不是be动词

三、一般过去时的基本结构

一般过去式的构成形式:

否定形式:be动词前:were not

行为动词前: did not+实义动词原形

一般疑问句:be动词前:was或were放于句首;

行为动词前:用助动词do的过去式did 提问,同时还原行为动词。

一般过去时专项练习 一 选择

( )1. She lived there before he____to China.

A. came B. comes C. come D. coming ( )2. I _____but _____ nothing.

A . was listened; was hearing B. listened; heard

C . have listened; heard D. listened; heard of

( )3. When did you ____here?

A. got to B. reached

C. arrive in D. reach

( )4. I____ my homework at 7:00 yesterday evening.

A. finished B. would finish

C. was finishing D. finish

( )5 -He didn't go shopping with you yesterday afternoon, did he?

- _______.

A. No, he doesn't B. Yes, he didn't

C. No, he did D. Yes, he did.

( ) 6 -I have had supper.

- When ____you ____it?

A. have; had B. do, have C. did, have D. will have

二、请用正确动词形式填空。

1 They____(be) on the farm a moment ago.

2 There____(be)a shop not long ago.

3 Jenny____(not go)to bed until 11:00 o'clock last night.

4 Danny _____(read )English five minutes ago.

5 I _____(see)Li Lei ____(go) out just now.

6 He ____(do)his homework every day. But he __(not do)it yesterday.

7 When I was young, I _____(play)games with my friends.

8 When ____you_____(write)this book?

I _____it last year.

9 Did he____(have) lunch at home?

10 I _____(eat) the bread, I 'm full now.

11 _________ (have) an exciting party last weekend.

12. _________ she _________(practice) her guitar yesterday? No, she _________.

13. What ________ Tom ________ (do) on Saturday evening?

He ________(watch) TV and __________(read) an interesting book.

14. They all _________(go) to the mountains yesterday morning.

15. She _________(not visit) her aunt last weekend.

She ________ (stay) at home and _________(do) some cleaning.

16. When ________ you _________(write) this song? I __________(write) it last year.

17. My friend, Carol, ________(study) for the math test and ________(practice) English last night.

18. ________ Mr. Li __________(do) the project on Monday morning? Yes, he _________.

19. How _________(be) Jim's weekend? It _________(be not) bad.

20. ________ (be) your mother a sales assistant last year? No. she __________.

三、翻译下列句子

1. 我过了一个忙碌但却刺激的周末。

I _________ _________ __________ __________ exciting weekend.

2. Jenny喜欢看书。昨晚她看了一本英语书。

Jenny likes _________ __________. She _________ an English book last night.

3. Emma每天都看电视。可是昨天他没有看。

Emma __________ TV every day. But he _________ ___________ yesterday.

4. 上周六他们做什么了?他们做作业和购物了。

What ________ they _________ _________ Saturday?

They _________ __________ homework and _________ __________.

三、改写句子:

1、Lucy did her homework at home.(改否定句)

Lucy ___________ ___________ her homework at home.

2、He found some meat in the fridge(冰箱).(变一般疑问句)

___________ he __________ ___________ meat in the fridge?

3、She stayed there for a week.(对划线部分提问)

__________ ___________ __________ she __________ there?

4、There was some orange in the cup.(变一般疑问句)

_________ there ___________ orange in the cup?

过去进行时 (一)定义

过去进行时,是表示过去某个具体时刻正在进行的事情或动作。

(二)结构

was/were +doing (现在分词)

(三)用法

1、过去进行时表示过去某段时间内持续进行的动作或者事情。常用的时间状语this

morning, the whole morning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while等。例如:

We were watching TV from seven to nine last night.

What was he researching all day last Sunday?

My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself.

It was raining when they left the station.

When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining.

2. 过去进行时可以表示在过去某个时间点发生的事情。时间点可以用介词短语、副词或从句来表示。如:

What was she doing at nine o'clock yesterday?

When I saw him he was decorating his room.

3. 在复合句中,如果主要动作和背景动作都是延续的或同时发生的,那么主从句的动词都可用过去进行时。例如:

While he was waiting for the bus, he was reading a newspaper.

He was cleaning his car while I was cooking.

4. 英语中有四类动词一般不用进行时(不用现在进行时和过去进行时)

1)表心理状态、情感的动词,如love ,hate ,like ,care ,respect ,please ,prefer ,

know 等,若用进行时则词意改变。

I’m forgetting it . (=beginning to forget )

2)表存在、状态的动词,如appear ,exist ,lie ,remain ,stand ,seem等

3)表感觉的动词,如see ,hear ,feel ,smell ,sound ,taste等.

4)表一时性的动词,如accept ,allow ,admit ,decide ,end ,refuse ,permit ,promise等 , 例如

误:I was knowing the answer.

正:I knew the answer. 我知道答案。

误:I wasn't understanding him.

正:I didn't understand him. 我不明白他的意思。

练习

用动词的适当形式填空

1. While we __________ (wait) for the bus, a girl __________ (run) up to us.

2. I __________ (telephone) a friend when Bob __________ (come) in.

3. Jim __________ (jump) on the bus as it __________ (move) away.

4. We __________ (test) the new machine when the electricity __________ (go) off.

5. She __________ (not want) to stay in bed while the others ________________ (all, work) in the fields.

6. I _____ (have) my breakfast at half past six yesterday morning.

7. As I __________ (walk) in the park, it __________ (begin) to rain.

8. Even when she ___________ (be) a child she ________________ (already, think) of becoming a ballerina (芭蕾舞演员).

9. It was quite late at night. George __________ (read) and Amy __________ (ply) her needle when they __________ (hear) a knock at the door.

10. Mary _____ (go) over her lessons from six to seven last night. John and peter ____(do) the same thing.. 11. _____ they ____ (have) a meeting at 4 yesterday afternoon?

No, they _____. They _____ (clean) the classroom.

12. When I ____ (come) in the room, he ____ (see) me, for he ____ (read) something

13. What _____ you ___ (do) at that time? We _____ (watch) TV.

14. Was your father at home yesterday evening? Yes ,he was. He _____ (listen) to the radio.

15. They _____(not make) a model ship when I saw him.

选择题。

1. I ______ cooked a meal when you _____ me.

a. cooked, were ringing b. was cooking, rang

c. was cooking, were ringing d. cooked, rang

2. He said he _____ to draw a plane on the blackboard at that time.

a. tries b. tried c. was trying d. will try

3. While she ______ TV, she ______ a sound outside the room.

a. was watching, was hearing b. watched, was hearing

c. watched, heard d. was watching, heard

4. They _____ a football game from 7 to 9 last night.

a. were watching b. watch c. watched d. are watching

5. What book ____ you ______ when I ____ you at four yesterday afternoon?

a. did, read, was seeing b. did, read, saw

c. were, reading, saw d. were, reading, was seeing

6. It was Friday evening. Mr and Mrs. Green _____ ready to fly to England.

a. are getting b. get c. were getting d. got

7. Lei Feng _____ always _____ of others when he ______ in the army.

a. is, thinking, was b. was, thinking, is c. did, think, is d. was, thinking, was

8. A girl ______ my pen fall off the table when she _____ me.

a. saw, passed b. was seeing, passed c. was seeing, passed d. was seeing, was passing

9. We ____ for tom at ten last Sunday. He often kept us ______.

a. were waiting, waiting b. were waiting, wait c. waited, waiting d. waited, wait

10. He ____ his father on the farm the whole afternoon last Saturday.

a. helps b. would help c. was helping d. is helping

11. While mother _______ some washing, I _____ a kite for Kate.

a. did, made b. was doing, made c. was doing, was making d. did, was making

12. “_______ you angry then?” “they ______ too much noise.”

a. are, were making b. were, were making c. are, made d. were, made

13. He ____ some cooking at that time, so _____ me

a. did, heard b. did, didn’t hear c. was doing, heard d. was doing, didn’t hear

14. This time yesterday jack _____ his bike. He _____ TV

a. repaired, didn’t watch b. was repairing, watched

c. repaired, watched d. was repairing, wasn’t watching

15. His parents wanted to know how he _____ on with his new classmates.

a. was getting b. gets c. is getting d. will get

There be 结构句型的讲解与练习。

第一关:There be 结构的意义及形式

There be 结构主要用以表达

其中there 是引导词,没有词义;be是谓语动词;

如: There is a football under the chair.

引导语 谓语动词 主语 介词 短语(某地)

第二关:There be结构中的动词be的确定

1. there be 结构中的谓语动词be在人称和数上应与其后的主语保持一致。主语是不可数名词或单数可数名词时用is,是复数时用are。如:

There is a flower in the bottle.

There are some apples on the table.

2. 若句子中有几个并列的主语时,be的形式要与离其最近的一个主语在人称和数上保持一致。如:

There is a boy, a girl and two women in the house.

There are ten students and a teacher in the office.

第三关::There be 结构的句型转换

1. 否定句: there be的否定式通常在be后加not构成(在口语中be时常与not缩写在一起)。如果句中有some,一般要变成any。如:

There are some children in the picture.

→There aren't any children in the picture.

2. 一般疑问句及其答语:把be提到there前,首字母大写,句末用问号即可。其肯定答语是Yes, there is / are;否定答语为No, there isn't / aren't。如:

-Are there two cats in the tree?

-Yes, there are. (No, there aren't.)

第四关:

There be 与 have

There be与 have都可表示“有”的含义。但have表所有关系,there be表“存在”,侧重的重点不同;并且have前必须有人作主语。

例如:There are some children in the garden.

She has three daughters and two sons.

百看不如一练

用刚刚学到的句型翻译下列句子。

例如:有桌子上有一条鱼。

答:There is a fish on the table.

1在桌子上有一个苹果.__________________________________________

2) 在篮子里有八个西红柿._________________________________________

3) 在教室里有一个老师和八个学生.__________________________________

4) 在教室里有八个学生和一个老师.__________________________________ 变下列句子为否定句.

1) There is a big watermelon on the table.

________________________________________________________________

2) There are eight children in the classroom.

________________________________________________________________

3) There are many books in the bag.

________________________________________________________________

变下列句子为一般疑问句.

1) There is a dog on the chair.

_____________________________________________________________

2) There is some fruit on the table.

_____________________________________________________________

3) There are many pencils in the pencil case.

________________________________________________________________

中考原题

1.There are _____ days in a week.

A.the seven B.seventh C.the seventh D.seven

2.There are few _____ in the fridge.Let's go and buy som e peas,carrots and cabbages.

A.vegetables B.fruit C.meat D.eggs

3.Look!There are some _____ on the floor.

A.child B.water C.boxes D.girl

4.There were two _____ people at yesterday's meeting.

A.hundreds B.hundreds of C.hundred

5.The letter from my uncle was short.There wasn't _____ news.

A.many B.a few C.much D.few

6.—Oh,there isn't enough _____ for us in the lift.

—It doesn't matter,let's wait for the next.

A.ground B.floor C.place D.room

7.There _____ an English Evening next Tuesday.

A.was B.will be C.will have D.are going to be

8.There _____ a football gam e in our school.

A.has B.will have C.will be

9.There is going to _____ a report _____ Chinese history in our school this evening.

A.have;on B.be;on C.have;for D.be;of

10.There is _____ food here.We'll have to buy some.

A.any B.some C.no

11.There is _____ in the bag.It's em pty.

A.nothing B.something C.anything D.somebody

12.There is _____ knocking at the door.Go and see who it is.

A.nobody B.somebody C.anybody D.everybody

13.—Is there _____ wrong with me, doctor?

—I'm afraid so.Your heart is beating a bit too slow.

A.something B.anything C.everything D.nothing

14.There is _____ interesting on this channel.Try others.

A.nothing B.none C.anything D.no

15.There is _____ interesting in the film,so _____ is interested in it.

A.something;nobody B.nothing;somebody

C.anything;anybody D.nothing;nobody

16.There is _____ in today's newspaper.

A.nothing new B.anything new

C.new anything D.new something

17.There is _____ in today's newspaper.

A.new anything B.new something

C.anything new D.something new

18.There will be a volleyball match in our school, _____ ?

A.be there B.is there C.will there D.won't there

19.There is little water in the bottle.(改为反意疑问句) There is little water in the bottle, _____ _____ ?

20.There is som ething unusual on the island.(改为反意疑问句) There is som ething unusual on the island, _____ _____ ?


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